Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Defining research problem and setting objectives free essay sample

Reviewing what is already known about a problem situation through the search for related literature and studies is an essential part of the research process. A good review of information will suggest the social, economic, political, cultural and historical aspects of the problem. This wille help to narrow the focus of the proposed investigation. IT will indicate the major theoretical concepts and operational variables other researchers have considered important. It will suggest possible research hypotheses that need to be tested and it will help the researcher avoid the areas of study which have already been explored by other researchers many times over. a. Defining Research Problem (Non-developmental research) Title is used as â€Å"guide† in the search for literature and developing the outline of your paper. Example: â€Å"THE ACCEPTABILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (HRIS) USING BIOMETRICS AT QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY: BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION† Having chosen the specific topic for your thesis, it is definite that you have something in mind that is finding a solution. We will write a custom essay sample on Defining research problem and setting objectives or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It must be something which can be a technological need or problem. The problem must be well-defined. It is important that you identify the Main Problem or the overall problem and the Specific Problems relating to your thesis proposal. In defining your research problem, it is necessary that you create interest in your reader. The introduction in your problem definition or statement of the problem should present why you choose a particular topic or subject. There are various ways on how you can present the introduction. Some do it by asking questions which would lead to the presentation of the identified problem. Others start with a narrative story on how the problem came about or how it was discovered. There are people who begin with current and relevant issues in their introduction. But although there are different approaches in writing the introduction, the objective remains the same –to show that the problem being considered for research really exists. Examples are: Main problem: How to determine the acceptability of the HRIS using biometrics for QCPU, if it will totally eliminate the inaccuracies and/or inconsistencies of the present attendance/time monitoring system of the faculty and staff? Specific Problems: 1) The time/attendance record of the faculty and staff which is the basis of salary computation is unreliable. 2) The available commercial computer software for attendance monitoring is very expensive. 3) The computation of salaries/honorarium is done manually which is a very slow process. b. Setting the Research Objectives (Developmental research) Title is used as â€Å"guide† in the search for literature and developing the outline of your paper. Example: â€Å"HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM USING BIOMETRICS FOR QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY† It is equally important that the objectives why you are pursuing this particular thesis proposal must be established. The objectives are identified as to General or Main Objectives and Specific Objectives. General Objective: The general objective of the study is to develop and evaluate accurate and reliable employees’ time/attendance capturing system for QCPU faculty and staff using Biometrics. Specific Objectives: The study has the following specific objectives: 1) To design a system that would capture the time/attendance of faculty and staff using biometrics. 2) To construct a computer-based system of attendance monitoring that is cost-effective and is capable of generating daily, weekly, monthly reports. 3) To design a centralized database using Vb.Net and MySQL 4) To evaluate the performance of the developed system. 2. The Research Title Characteristics of a research title: a. The title signifies a very timely and significant contribution to the needs of society in general and to the agency in particular. b. The title of a thesis should be a specific and concise statement of the topic c. It should refer to the major variables or theoretical issues investigated; d. Its principal function is to inform the reader about the study, therefore, it should be explanatory by itself; e. The title should focus on the topic investigated and the main variables studied. f. The recommended maximum length for the title is 10 to 20 substantive words. Formulate the Research Title Title is used as â€Å"guide† in the search for literature and developing the outline of your paper. Example: a. â€Å"ACCEPTABILITY OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM USING BIOMETRICS AT QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY: BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION† (non-developmental research) b. â€Å"HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM USING BIOMETRICS FOR QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY† (developmental research)

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Immanuel Kants

Immanuel Kant’s duty theory can be considered as an element of the deontological ethics. It is the duty that every person has to follow according to moral ethics. All the right or wrong actions of the individuals are not depended on possible consequences of these actions, but rather serve to fulfill the duty. However, it is impossible to insist on the good motives of something without providing any convincing facts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A good reasoning should be a performance of our duty and demonstrate a will of goodness. Kant indicates that some good issues do not necessarily contain a meaning of the consequences and results, it is good in itself. Performing of our duty has to be based on the understanding of its major parts and significance. A duty is a necessity to act taking into consideration law issues . In order to get a better understanding of a duty, it is important to investigate two notions of Kant, such as the categorical imperative and hypothetical imperative. An imperative is the statement that indicates the individual the way of behavior. The hypothetical imperative includes a form of the conditional statement; thereby this position provides the instructions for a specific goal’s achievement, while the categorical imperative gives the instructions which have to be followed regardless of one’s goals (Meerbote and Walford 15). The categorical imperative is a fundamental principle of Kant’s theory related to the individual moral ethics. For Kant, it is the absolute rule which cannot be overridden by other moral considerations. Therefore, according to Kant, morality has to be a basis of the categorical imperative. An individual is usually controlled by his morality and behaves according to one’s moral principles. Kant provides several definitions o f this principle. The first definition says that an action is permissible only in case it is performed from the position of a maximum. For Kant, a maximum is the universal law that should be followed by everyone (Meerbote and Walford 15). A maximum is the basis for every action including the voluntary one. It is the principle which everyone has to follow. For instance, the time one spends on charity has to be equal to the time he/she spends on eating. All maximums have a particular format that has to be followed in every circumstance. The universal law provides everyone with the opportunity to perform actions given under certain circumstances and motives. In other words, you have to act more carefully and in accordance with the particular circumstances.Advertising Looking for essay on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It will be an example for other persons and lead to the similar behaviors of the ones who are facing the same situation. For instance, if I decided to lie in order to get some benefits, it would lead to the situation when everyone can easily lie to each other. So, what consequences will we have? Nobody will believe me and I will also have doubts about other people’s words. According to Solomon, in case the maximum of lying becomes universal there is no point to lie anymore. It is absolutely impermissible within the first categorical imperative notion (Solomon 5). Kant emphasizes that the notion of maximum contains several flaws in its application. Therefore, the philosopher provides the second notion. This formulation is based on the same moral principle, but it is more comprehensible and easier in the use. This notion indicates that action is permissible only in case the rational being is not treated. The philosopher believes that only humans are the rational creatures. Due to their intrinsic value, no one can be treated as an instrument of the desires fulfillment. People invo lved in this action should accept it voluntarily (Meerbote and Walford 15). According to Kant’s theory, lying is always a wrong action and, therefore, people should not get involved in it. However, due to the different life positions and moral principles of people, it is difficult to achieve the positions of this statement. There are always some specific circumstances which require the particular exclusions. For instance, if I have to lie in order to save someone’s life, isn’t it an exception to the rules? The present universal law can be considered from position of contradiction. As the result, people would not stop believing each other because they lie to save lives. Kant explores his theory with the relation to lying only. The maximums and other universal laws should be specified in the ways that could demonstrate the relevant features of any situation given. For instance, in this case, the situation of committing a murder in order to protect oneself can be c onsidered as an exception.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The understanding of the universal maximum of lie is not an answer which helps choosing the right method of behavior in a situation when someone has to save the other person’s life. Therefore, Kant’s theory of ethics cannot be considered as the universal conception of the human behavior. However, comparing with the utilitarian system of ethics, Kant’s theory seems more applicable due to its objectives (Gregor 46). According to Kant’s theory, the system of ethics is very useful in guiding principle of human morality. However, this theory cannot be relevant in the complicated and vague situations. Immanuel Kant’s duty theory contains a good definition of morality and its particular elements, such as lying or stealing. Kant indicates tha t the goodness has not to contain a meaning of the consequences and results, it is good in itself. Works Cited Gregor, Mary. The Metaphysics of Morals. New York: Cambridge University Press,1975. Print. Meerbote, Ralf Walford, David. Theoretical Philosophy.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1992. Print. Solomon, Robert. Introducing Philosophy. Boston: Sage, 1997.Print. This essay on Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics was written and submitted by user Nickolas U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Example Physical Therapy Consultation †Anatomy Paper

Example Physical Therapy Consultation – Anatomy Paper Free Online Research Papers This 19 y/o young man was seen today for a Physical Therapy consultation. This patient is known to me-I had seen him at Kids in Motion for several years when he was of pre-school age. Jaime presents with spastic diplegia-cerebral palsy, and has just moved back into the Midwest to continue his studies. He ambulates independently without a device, and has just secured his own apartment. Jaime is concerned over his physical status, especially with the physical effort and exhaustion in walking even short distances. In 2004, Jaime received adductor and Achilles tendon releases in Chile. He was unclear about hamstring or hip flexor releases as well. GAIT Very labored. Severe crouch gait. Speed is remarkably functional. even though step lengths are severely limited to 6 inches each side, Advances feet via hip hiking and swiveling at the 1umbar 5pine. To keep up his speed, Jaime is expending an extraordinary amount of energy by using a jogging cadence even while his walking companions are taking a leisurely stroll. Real concern over long term spine integrity. Feet extremely pronated. Knees in valgus, right more than left. Stands with feet behind the gravity line, knees flexed and adducted. Can barely separate legs to take steps. Can do stairs, but does them with even more exaggerated knee valgus as he descends and ascends. Circumducts legs in both cases. Little isolated hip flexion in walk or stairs. Endurance a real issue- quite out of breath even after a short 30 foot walk. This may account for Jaime’s account that he really eats huge meals, but has a hard time keeping his energy up. He presents as a thin, but well proportioned, young man in the trunk area, with overdeveloped quads (as he tries to hold himself up against gravity) and lower legs with inadequate bony growth and muscle deve1opment. STRENGTH It is very dear that Jaime has put forth massive effort throughout the years in his physical therapy program. Surprisingly, he truly has a grade 4 out of 5 strength in his dorsiflexors, quads, hips flexors, gluteals and abdominals when tested in supine; and throughout his shoulder girdle when tested in sitting. No problems initiating or sustaining muscle contractions. Brisk coordination. He plays guitar and is able to oppose thumb to each finger even in overhead positions. Strengthening should no longer be his main concern, except for his calf muscle groups and feet. I did encourage Jaime to join a gym and begin working with a physical therapist on proper use of weight equipment to continue his strengthening efforts. Beautiful sitting balance, with quick equilibrium responses. Jaime could take my maximal challenges to balance in quarduped in all planes. Very strong, stable trunk, as reflected in his ability to stand truly still without the typical excessive side-to-side weight shifts typically found in individuals with cerebral palsy. ROM Herein lies my main concerns. Note that when Jaime was lying at rest in supine, he was truly out of breath, even after resting for 10-15 minutes as I tested his ROM. Upon further exam, it was noted that Jaimes rib excursion was extremely poor throughout his thorax. He was unable to fully inflate his lungs, and he was over-dependent upon his diaphragm, for breath support. Chest expansion was obviously poor due to the real tightness found throughout his trunk. Although Jaime used great effort and strength to lift his arms overhead, he presents with 15 to 20 degree elbow flexion contractures, and shoulder abduction and overhead flexion of only 160 bilaterally, again due to tightness throughout the shoulder girdle. In sitting, cannot do side bends with his trunk at all-lateral flexion range in the thoracic spine almost zero. In sitting, could actively rotate trunk to left to 50-60 degrees, but could not rotate trunk to right more than 10 degrees at most, again due to tightness throughout. Lumbar spine is hyper mobile as Jaime compensates for complete lack of pelvic femoral dissociation. With great effort in standing, using upper extremity support on wall, Jaime can raise each knee and flex hip up 55 degrees max upwards when asked. Normally, a young man should easily be able to flex hip in single-leg stance to at least 120 degrees easily. Hamstring tightness really impedes ability to flex hip and take forward steps during gait. In fact, during gait, Jaime could only flex each hip 10- 20 degrees, resulting in the very severely limited step lengths described above. Note severe contractures throughout lower extremities. -Hamstrings Length Test Missing 90-100 degrees of the normal 180 degrees of expected range. -Thomas test Missing 30-40 degrees of hip flexor range bilaterally. -Hip abduction -limited to 10-15 degrees bilaterally. -Dosiflexors- Contracted. Cannot passively plantarflex feet beyond 15 degrees bilaterally. -Feet Severe pronation. Valgus deformity in midfoot. Hallux valgus bilaterally to the point where 2nd toe has been pushed into flexion on left foot. -Calcaneous Downwardly tipped. -Leg Length Discrepancy- Left tibia shorter than right. Appears left femur shortened also, but could be due to pelvic obliquity so could not be sure on this one-time consultation. The fact that the left tibia is shorter is obvious, and Jaime would benefit from a shoe lift. Further dynamic balance evaluation needed to determine amount of lift, but I would start with a 1/4 inch and recheck for changes to stand and gait balance. Summary. This very strong young man is putting forth massive effort each and every day to walk and move despite his very severe contractures throughout his lower legs, and despite his moderate plus limitations in his trunk and upper extremities. This effort is already taking a strong toll on his respiratory system and his breathing is compromised. Simply speaking, Jaime is working much too hard to make it through the day. Because of his wonderful determination and young age this has not stopped him as yet, but as he ages, he will find that he must limit his activities more and more. It is essential that all efforts are made to free his body of his many severe range of motion restrictions, and to manage his spasticity medically so that they do not return. Jaimes is in need of direct attention to the movement limitations of his ribcage, so that his breathing may become more efficient. Finally, orthotic management and strengthening of the lower legs must also commence, in a step-by-step manner, so that the ankle, foot and knee pain and early arthritis that is typical for young adults with CP and poor joint alignment can be delayed or averted. Jaime is at extreme risk for early and severe joint pain as he gets older. , Cornejo-page 4 of 4 Recommendations 1. Jaime must immediately seek out an orthopedist with extensive experience in cerebral palsy in his area. 2. Also, he must immediately connect with a spasticity management clinic, where the options of Baclofen (oral or pump) or Artane or other similar drug management can be explored. Botox is also an option for those muscle groups that are in need of extra attention, but the fact that he presents with real tightness throughout his body necessitates that he also explore systemic spasticity management with his physicians. There are excellent referral sources in the Chicago area, if the family desires. 3. Physical therapy should begin once medical management is in place, so that long-lasting results can occur. Note that only 3 years after his last orthopedic surgery, Jaime again presents with adduction contractures. To avoid repeat procedures, and resultant weakening of vital muscle groups, it is important that Jaime receive physical therapy and medical spasticity management in concert. This young man has worked very hard in the past, and wou1d like to see physical therapy supported by medical management. 4, Therapy should be done witl1 someone well-versed in soft tissue, manual therapy and myofascial release techniques, with the main goal of radically improving all muscle ranges. At this point in his lifespan, an NDT trained therapist is not needed. Rather, a therapist with advanced orthopedic techniques is recommended. 5. Orthotic management should also commence, starting perhaps with simple UCBLs, and moving on up to SMOs. Bracing to the AFO level is highly recommended against, as it will cause atrophy of the calf group and even more long-term problems remaining upright throughout Jaimes life. Rather the crouch gait should be approached by achieving proper hamstring and hip flexor lengths, and following up with much calf strengthening, i.e. stair work and push activities, including toe flexor strengthening. Please do not hesitate to contact me with any questions. My phone number is 800-555-0000. Jon H Doe, PT, PCS Research Papers on Example Physical Therapy Consultation - Anatomy PaperThe Hockey GameThree Concepts of PsychodynamicPETSTEL analysis of IndiaPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfThe Spring and AutumnRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanGenetic EngineeringTrailblazing by Eric AndersonArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Staffing management plan Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Staffing management plan - Coursework Example This plan tries to identify processes that the project will undergo and procedures to be followed. The project will be done in reference to statewide information management manual. The manual will lead the project manager when executing duties during the project.  Document maintenance  The staffing management plan will be reviewed every six months and updated as soon as changes are realized. It will be mainly reviewed at every stage of the project, and what will be learned will help in standards upgrading of the project.  Ã‚  Staff planning  Requirement gathering – 10 1 week requirement analysis- 8 5 weeks  Design- 5 3weeksDevelopment-16 10 weeks  Testing -12 1 week maintenance – 6 continuous  Staff acquisition  WMO is a matrix organization that comprises of sponsored staff from foreign firms with consultant staff.  Staff training will be conducted on the basis that their stage will come net after the current one expires. Orientation will be conducted and when the project is on course to equip the staff with skills.The project manager will be assigned to a duty to manage daily operations of the project and how staff responds to the project at every stage.  The rewards of staffs will be reviewed weekly. Every staff will be paid at the rate of $10 per day. The total rewards for each staff will be $300.Staffing management plan is a very important when undertaking a project. The success of a project is determined by the strength of plan that is formulated.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 25

Marketing - Essay Example fragrance is a step in the right direction and Levi Strauss will not have any foreseeable problems in this venture being already a market leader in the apparels business which is also a part of the modeling scenario. However, the ride may not be smooth and it will take the company every effort from the launch of the new products to ensure that the perfume brand does not fall short on any count. The competition is tight and the present players in the field, including the grey market, are not likely to part with their market share without a fight. Internationally, the cosmetics and fragrance market is the domain of the affluent and the middle class. These sections of the population are vigilant. It is also a shifting clientele who are ever on the lookout for better products and will not bat an eyelid to change over to a new brand if it proves to be more effective. Cosmetics and fragrance are products of personal preferences and the packaging is as important as the product. The market is in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Australia. The clients in each zone have tastes and habits peculiar to the region. Zonal cultures have a role in the preference of cosmetics and fragrance. Hence it is important to keep in view factors that influence sale of the products in different regions. After the launch, the product may require changes in content or outlook for acceptance in different regions. Do not take anything for granted and keep feedback notes so that changes wherever required can be made in the next production batch (Cosmetics market research). The management of territorial markets is necessary to monitor the performance of the products in a specific region. Every outlet is a specific locality and it is important to get the views of the local players for they are knowledgeable about customer needs. Big brands like L’Oreal have strong presence in local markets almost everywhere. L’Oreal invests substantially in research and development. This enables them to keep

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Palestinian embroidery Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Palestinian embroidery - Research Paper Example Embroidery in Palestine was used to portray the woman’s social class at that time. Currently, there are different styles and designs are applied in the embroidery trade. The different embroidery pattern can be traced back to different cultures. For example, the traditional designs were made by the village and Bedouin women. The designs were drawn from simple geometry and other shapes that governed their daily lives. The designs can be categorized into four main categories, namely ritual, technical, geographical, and structural.The techniques used included appliquà ©, weaving and dyeing. Palestine embroidery was divided into regions and this reflected the different cultures. An example is in the wedding dresses where the motifs of the Bedouin and village dresses differed. The fabrics used in embroidery were specific. Before the Palestine’s began importing materials, they used the locally available fabrics. These include linen, cotton, silk, and linen. These materials at times would be mixed in different percentages to give a new material. For example, the royal wedding dress used in Bethlehem weddings was made up of linen mixed with a high percentage of silk (malak). The most famous fabrics were white linen or cotton. In the villages and Bedouin, un-dyed linen and Indigo blue were the preferred colors for both sexes. For the mens clothes, soft wool and atlas silk was used to make their clothes. Before the production of synthetic dyes, the Palestine women used colors derived from insects and local plants. For example, the color red was derived from the insect cochineal. Indigo was mainly obtained from plants (Indigofera tinctoria) 1.Even with the arrival of synthetic dyes, many women preferred using naturally obtained dyes as they did not fade away even with numerous washing as compared with synthetic dyes which fades off after washing. Motifs were of special importance in Palestine. This is because the way a woman

Friday, November 15, 2019

Dental Prosthetic Options

Dental Prosthetic Options S.N.: Introduction: Prosthetic options to replace a missing tooth fall into two main categories: Fixed prostheses and removable prostheses. When choosing the suitable treatment option to replace a missing upper incisor, multiple variables involving the patient wishes, expectations, dentist skills and training, cost of treatment, and clinical findings should be taken into consideration (Al-Quran et al., 2011). These factors will have a strong influence on the short and long terms success of the treatment selected. Based on the conservation of neighbouring teeth and annual failure rates, dental implants are the treatment of choice to replace a missing central maxillary incisor, followed by conventional bridges, and removal partial dentures (Pjetursson Lang, 2008). Facial growth in relation to age: Craniofacial development is a continuous process that starts intra-uterine and has shown different rates between males and females (Brahim, 2005) . Skeletal maturation in males is reported to be reached at the age of 20, while females reach the maturation phase earlier, at the age of 17-18 years (Heij et al., 2006). Therefore, it has been recommended, when selecting the prosthetic option to replace a missing tooth, to take the patient’s age into consideration. Dental Implants should be avoided until the cessation of jaw development mentioned earlier (Daftary et al., 2013) or after the end of the growth spurt (Heij et al., 2006). If dental implants are used before the vertical maturation is reached, it will not grow vertically with the alveolar bone and will be submerged at different levels depending at the patient’s age when the implants were inserted (Brahim, 2005). Dental trauma and the surrounding tissues: In most scenarios, it is rare that a single incisor will be traumatized with no damage on adjacent incisors, surrounding bone, or soft tissues. If any damage sustained to neighbouring teeth, the status and prognosis of these teeth should be assessed, as it will have a strong impact on the selection of the definitive treatment option. Traumatic avulsion of teeth, account for 0.5% 3% of all dentoalveolar trauma, and it is associated with damage to the alveolar bone, specially the buccal plate (Andreasen, 1970). After tooth extraction, reduction of the alveolar bone height and width can be as high as 50% in the first year (Schropp L, 2004) with the highest amount of bone loss within the first three months (Pietrokovski Massler, 1967). Bone loss is not even between the buccal and palatal bone plates, with more bone loss in the buccal plate (Pietrokovski Massler, 1967) and bone width than height (Van Der Weijden et al., 2009). There are several treatment options that could be used for replacing a lost maxillary central incisor: Removable Partial Denture (RPD): RPD have the advantages of minimal clinical skills required, minimal chair time, and preservation of neighbouring teeth. On the other hand, the patient satisfaction is low, with a sense of insecurity, high risk of accidental breakage, and loss. Still, RPD is the quickest, cheapest replacement option of a missing incisor, and usually used as a temporary treatment until healing is complete and bone remodelling is minimal. Resin Retained Fixed Bridges (RRB): Resin retained bridges share the advantage of removable dentures of having minimal effect on abutment teeth with no risk of pulpal injury and the reversible nature of the prostheses. It is also relatively of low cost and acceptable aesthetic result (metal frame could be masked by opaque cement on expense of translucency). The commonest failure associated with RRB is frequent debonding of 20% over 5 years (Pjetursson et al., 2008) which could cause social embarrassment to the patient. The patient could also be given an Essex Type retainer with a single tooth in the gap as an emergency prosthesis until recementation of the resin retained bridge is done. RRB could be used as a final prosthetic option but more often is used as an interim measure as it could be reversed at any time, with 87.7% 5 years prognosis (Pjetursson et al., 2008) If the prosthesis is planned to be a temporary option, Rochette type wings are made with holes to facilitate frequent removal. Conventional Bridge: This is an irreversible treatment, replacing the missing tooth with a 2 or 3 units’ conventional bridge. These offer superior retention and aesthetics over RRB by the mean of full coverage of the abutment teeth. The main drawback is the need to reduce the sound tooth structure of the abutments with 20% risk of nerve damage and higher caries risk. The reduction of tooth structure is more for porcelain fused to metal or full ceramic/Zirconia crowns than full crown which is a requirement in the anterior aesthetic zone. According to previous studies, â€Å"if the adjacent teeth are severed, or in need of being crowned, the conventional bridge is to be preferred (Annual failure rate: 1.14%)† (Pjetursson Lang, 2008). The success rate is reported to be 90 % for 10 years and 72% for 15 years (Pjetursson et al., 2008) and (Burke Lucarotti, 2012). Endosseous dental implants: When considering the success rate, dental implants are reported to have the highest documented survival rate of 94% for 5 years (Attard Zarb, 2003) and 89% over 15 years (Pjetursson et al., 2008). Dental Implants have numerous advantages over the previously mentioned treatment options. Comparing dental implants to other fixed treatment modalities, there is no danger of pulpable damage of adjacent teeth, as no abutment teeth preparation is involved. Implants also facilitate the patient’s daily oral hygiene routines around the prosthesis, since there are no connectors between the prostheses and abutment teeth, making flossing possible. Furthermore, the maintenance and regular follow ups by the dentist is easier for dental implants. Removing a conventional bridge is a challenging task compared to screw retained implant supported crowns which could be removed and re-inserted multiple times when required (not applicable to cemented crowns). For implant supported restorations in the anterior maxillary region, a detailed patient assessment, implant site assessment, and proper treatment planning is the key for a successful restoration. The planning should be derived from the restorative point of view not guided by the availability of bone. The following points should be carefully assessed: Lip position at rest and smile: The patient’s aesthetic expectations should be coupled with the upper lip position at rest and when smiling. In most cases, 2 mm of the incisal edge of the central incisors should show at rest, and it could be either 100% of all the incisors (high smile line), more than 75% visible (medium smile line), or (low smile line) showing less than 75% of the incisors. With low smile line lip position, the aesthetic challenges are lower, and the emphasis on soft tissue contouring and papilla regeneration is also lower (Tjan et al., 1984). If the patient’s expectations are high while having high smile line, patient education should take place prior to implant treatment as the implant treatment could be deemed a failure if did not meet the patient’s aesthetic requirements despite been successful in every other aspect. Attached gingiva and surrounding soft tissue: The attached gingiva could have thick, moderate, or thin architecture. Thick gingiva is more common than the thin biotype; it appears as a more stippled, flat fibrous band of attached mucosa, masking the underlying bony contours. It is associated with higher resistance to recession, better soft tissue contouring, and resistance to peri-implant disease. On the other hand, thin gingival biotypes are found in 15% of population (Tjan et al., 1984) and it is a thinner mucosal layer with the bony scalloping showing through it. This type is more prone to exposure of the implant and compromising the aesthetic result (Tjan et al., 1984). The thin biotype has been associated with long triangular teeth and more incisally positioned contact points, while the thick biotype is associated with shorter, square crowns with more apically positioned contact points (hence, more papillary regeneration). Implant size used: Implant size has a direct effect on the emergence profile of the coronal restoration and aesthetics. Natural existing teeth and available bone are helping factors when selecting the right implant diameter, while implant length should provide a safety distance to the surrounding anatomical structures. The implant diameter should allow 1.5 mm between implant and neighbouring teeth (and 3mm between adjacent implant fixtures) (Jivraj Chee, 2006). The gingival biotype also should not be overlooked when selecting the fixture diameter, for example; if wider implants are used with thin gingival biotype, the risk of recession is higher (Rodriguez Rosenstiel, 2012). Implant position: For the most aesthetic emergence profile, implants should be placed 1.5 mm – 2 mm from the adjacent tooth, 3mm – 4mm apical to CEJ (Jivraj Chee, 2006), and ideally should be placed under the proposed cingulum of the coronal restoration. A diagnostic wax up and a prefabricated surgical stent are of very important in deciding the crown and implant positions, and evaluating the amount of bony defect and the need for bone graft. Transfaring the surgical stent into the patient’s mouth will allow the visualization of the amount of incisor show and smile lines. The implant position and angulation will dictate the abutment type and the retention method used for the restoration (screw or cement retained). Available bone quality and quantity: Bone density has been classified by Lekholm and Zarb (1985) into 4 categories: Homogenous compact bone, Thick cortical bone around dense trabecular bone, Dense trabecular bone covered by thin cortical bone, Very thin cortex enclosing minimal density trabeculae. Types 3 and 4 are associated with more failure rates, and are more found in the maxilla. Therefore, under -preparation of the osteotomy site could be done to gain higher initial stability. Branemark et al 1977 defined ossteointegeration as â€Å"direct structural and functional connection between living bone and load carrying implant†. Implant fixture should be in direct contact with healthy bone in three dimensions. Therefore, the amount of available bone required around any dental implant is 1.5 mm buccally and palatally, 3 mm between adjacent implants and at least 1.5mm -2mm between implants and adjacent teeth (Misch, 2008) and (Rodriguez Rosenstiel, 2012). If buccal bone width is not sufficient, a smaller diameter implant that will be functionally and aesthetically sound could be selected. It will also allow slight palatal positioning (Rodriguez Rosenstiel, 2012). Bone grafting/augmentation procedure could be done to add the bone thickness (Esposito et al., 2009) and bone could be sourced from: Patient’s own bone (Autogenous graft): commonly could be harvested from calvarian bone, iliac crest, mandibular ramus or chin. This provides highest reported success rates (Esposito et al., 2009). Different human bone (Allograft): usually from cadaveric bone. Bone undergoes special treatment to be deproteinized and freezed (Esposito et al., 2009). Animal sources (Xenograft) usually cows or pigs. Synthetic materials (Alloplast): artificial graft material which could be used solely or in conjunction with autogenous grafts (Esposito et al., 2009). Bone regeneration membranes: these are used to act as a barrier between the superficial soft tissue and the grafted bone or material to prevent ingrowth of the fibrous tissue and allow pure bone development. These membranes could be either natural or synthetic, resorbable or non- resporbable. If block bone graft is used, it should be allowed to heal for minimum 3 months before implant placement, while bone augmentation with alloplastic materials and membranes could be done simultaneously (Esposito et al., 2009). It is worth mentioning that porcine- derived bone and membranes may not be acceptable by some patients based on their religious beliefs and a specific consent should be obtained. The bone height will also impact the papilla formation, together with the crown shape and level of contact points; the papilla regeneration is favourable is square crown, broad apical contact points, and when the distance is around 4-5 mm between bone crest and contact points (Rodriguez Rosenstiel, 2012) and (Tarnow et al., 2003). Vertical bone augmentation has been shown to be unpredictable (Esposito et al., 2009) and the patient should be aware of the black triangles (lack of papilla) if vertical bone is deficient (Tarnow et al., 2003). Conclusion: Based on the previously discussed factors and the evidence available, dental implant would be the treatment of choice if the neighbouring teeth are of good prognosis and the aesthetic results are realistic. 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